Biosensors are analytical devices with biological detecting components such as sensors and transducers that translate the biological reaction received from receptor proteins present in an organism’s cells into an electrical signal. A biosensor contains three components: biological investigation elements, a transducer, and a sensor. A transducer is a connecting point that converts variation into physical quantities and digital signals while the sensor is detecting signals received from the transducer, which are then amplified and analysed by a microprocessor before being shown on the output device. Antibodies, receptors, enzymes, microbes, cells, DNA/RNA, organelles, and other biological investigating elements are used in this process. 

Agriculture can significantly benefit from nanotechnology. Because they detect biological analytes in agriculture, offering high sensitivity, precision, and detection time while being user-friendly and cost-effective. In this article, we will focus on the current advancements in this sector for improving crop health by detecting plant pathogens, pesticides, herbicides, and soil testing, as well as the prospects and constraints of nano biosensors in agriculture.

Nano biosensors offer a wide range of applications in agriculture and the environment. These sensors can detect foodborne pathogenic bacteria, harmful dyes, adulterants, antibiotics, hormones, and allergens, which are major health concerns in developing nations. Salmonellosis disease, for instance, is a worldwide issue caused by foodborne bacteria. Nano biosensors hold great promise for detecting these bacteria early in the food chain during storage, processing, and transport.

These nanotechnology-based sensors can detect herbicides, pesticides, and insecticide residues in food and have several advantages over conventional testing methods in terms of testing time, complexity, accuracy, and affordability. Acetylcholinesterase nano biosensors, for example, are used to detect pesticide levels in food, while electrochemical sensors detect monocrotophos and organophosphate insecticides. On the other hand, nanobiosensors can not only detect food pathogens and chemicals, but they can also detect biological contaminants, such as veterinary medicine residues in food. Nowadays they are widely used for assessing and managing food safety and quality around the world.

Nano biosensors are being developed to improve plant health by detecting plant diseases and assessing soil quality. Biosensors are commonly known to promote sustainable agriculture by increasing crop production, but increased detection of food pathogens, pesticides, antibiotics, and food contaminants must still be accomplished using nano biosensors for food safety; otherwise, they will endanger human health. In the future, nano biosensors will be able to detect new pathogens and diseases. They will also be able to monitor environmental conditions and make informed decisions about crop choice. As the use of biosensors in agriculture becomes more widespread, it will become increasingly important for farmers to have the latest technology at their disposal.

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